Benjamin Franklin was robust in rejecting the 2 fluid model of electrostatic charge. The recent development of the hole theory in semiconductors and Plasma gives some credence to the notion. But this theory relies on Rutherfords and Bohrs modelof atomic structure, thus we need a bare positive material base to balance things out.
The mechanical problem, if a mechanical eplantion is sought , is how to get the symmetry of repulsion , like repulsing like. The hole structure provides a mechanism, provides that attraction only occurs between electrons and the bare positive material.
The bare positive material is not a solid, but a bounded hole, a thin sheath of positive wad basin material or space. Thus electrons crowd into the hole providing the hole with its repulsive force on other holes.
Thus we have a one fluid theory explaining repulsion for both free electrons and bound electrons within a positive hole, and neutral combinations of electrons and holes.
I have explored several models of electrostatic charge. Whichever model one prefers is really a subjective choice, but empirically the data supports most models. The recent announcement on the Higgs Boson is not the end of the matter, but the theory of matter is firmly established on the Quantum theory, and its distinctions. This is good news for Grassmann:
The Dirac equation
The equation in the form originally proposed by Dirac is:
where ψ = ψ(r, t) is a complex four-component field ψ that Dirac thought of as the wave function for the electron, r and t are the space and time coordinates, m is the rest mass of the electron, p' is the momentum operator, c is the speed of light, and ħ is the reduced Planck constant (h/2π). Furthermore, α is a vector operator whose components are 4 × 4 matrices: α = (α1, α2, α3), and β is another 4 × 4 matrix.
This single symbolic equation unravels into four coupled linear first-order partial differential equations for the four quantities that make up the field. These matrices, and the form of the field, have a deep mathematical significance. The algebraic structure represented by the Dirac matrices had been created some 50 years earlier by the English mathematician W. K. Clifford. In turn, Clifford's ideas had emerged from the mid-19th century work of the German mathematician Hermann Grassmann in his "Lineale Ausdehnungslehre" (Theory of Linear Extensions). The latter had been regarded as well-nigh incomprehensible by most of his contemporaries. The appearance of something so seemingly abstract, at such a late date, and in such a direct physical manner, is one of the most remarkable chapters in the history of physics.
Dirac's purpose in casting this equation was to explain the behavior of the relativistically moving electron, and so to allow the atom to be treated in a manner consistent with relativity. His rather modest hope was that the corrections introduced this way might have bearing on the problem of atomic spectra. Up until that time, attempts to make the old quantum theory of the atom compatible with the theory of relativity by discretizing the angular momentum of the electron's orbit had failed – and the new quantum mechanics of Heisenberg, Pauli, Jordan, Schrödinger, and Dirac himself had not developed sufficiently to treat this problem. Although Dirac's original intentions were satisfied, his equation had far deeper implications for the structure of matter, and introduced new mathematical classes of objects that are now essential elements of fundamental physics.
The long and short of it is that matter is charged, and the quantity of matter is the quantity of charged matter, and the density of matter is the density of charge (ie charged matter is charge). The density of charge is complex because it cancels almost to neutral charge but occupies a volume . That volume or bulk is still the notion of mass.
The density of matter is an undefined concept unless it is defined as charge density. Charge density is just a count of charged particles, like Avogadros number. The metron used to measure these quantities would be the electron volt. Of course protons would be measured by the power to remove an electron from lowest levels, while the power to simply dislodge an electron measures the electron density of the electron cloud.
The charged mass provides the radial forces of attraction and repulsion necessary for the gravitational forces, and the spin of the charged systemss promote torque forces, which may be phased magnetic twistorques. The complex operation of the systems means that i can no longer use Newron's formulation, but that Newton's formulation is entirely consistent with the more detailed concept of matter we now have up to the level of his approximation of the data. We also see that the interplay of the mass charge under the third law, due to wave like inertia will modify the effective radial and torque forces through the system.
One vey interesting consequence is the tidal bulge is entirely consistent with redistribution of mass charge yhroughout the earth as like repels and opposites attracts. The polarization of charge should be noticeable.