The Centripetal Force and Alchemy
One of the great mysteries of Mechanical systems in Newtons times was the source of the attractive force.
Because they had one explanation which was magnetism, this was employed in all models of this kind of force interaction without explanation of transmission or cohesion, Many had begun the investigation of mechanical transmission of force by means of a collision model. The collision model proved highly explanatory for transmission systems like gears and ballistics, but failed to provide a satisfactory explanation for cohesion , adhesion and inherence. Newton had 3 candidates for the solution: collision with a resistant object that was spherical and enclosing, dragging by a bond which was tensile and interactiveor joined in some way to other objects , and the mysterious magnetic attraction that apparently acted at a distance in neither of these 2 other ways.
Upon solving the form of the quantity measure of this force in 1668, Newton embarked on investigating matter Alchemically to understand how it worked. He did so by following ancient encoded texts, which came down to succeeding generations as well loved myths and anecdotes, but which were in fact a secret Alchemical code to the manufacture of chemical compounds.
The Alchemical motive for research was the Philosophers Stone. The Philosophers stone is a metaphor for Sophia, that is wisdom, the most precious "stone" or jewel for any Philosopher. The Stone is clearly explained in the 2nd chapter of Proverbs in the Tanakh, where many such stones are described. The tablets on which the Dabirim are supposedly written are called a precious stone or Sapphire(choth). Similarly the transformation of base metal into pure Gold and silver is another metaphor for the development of a purer wisdom and understanding. It also happened to be the method by which ancient assayers produced the finest gold and silver from the crude ores or base metals and slag.
In studying Alchemy, both Boyle and Newton came to understand that there were many airs and fluids in so called solid matter, and these Newton typically renamed as active principles, to avoid distraction into the more fanciful imaginings of some. What interested him was how material formed its structures in the heating and reacting process. His third law is in fact a generalised and sanitized version of this knowledge and wisdom. There appeared to be in Alchemy a correspondence that was internal, and equal and opposite to the external motive and celerity principles he could easily demonstrate in collision experiments. The isolation of these forces and principles lead him to experiment with Mercury. This produced the astonishing fractal structur called mineral vegetation by some, it also nearly sent him mad.
It turned out that after recovering his composure, an opportunity arose at the mint for which he was now highly qualified! It meant a change in status and society, but also increased caution. He therefore set aside his alchemical researches, for it was against the laws of Britain to "multiply the kings gold", which was avidly seized upon by religious clerics to persecute alchemists and to defray the spread of Alchemy in Britain.
Newton had become poacher turned Gamekeeper, and indeed his knowledge enabled him to winkle out many false alchemists, some of who were hanged!
Whether Newton came upon the solution he was looking for is yet to be revealed, but i doubt it. He however came very close. Both he and Boyle believed the Electric and magnetic fluids had something to do with it, but of the two, only magnetism was scientifically proper to discuss openly. Electricity was not well understood at all, and seemed to naturally lead investigators into Alchemy and thus into the grip of occult practices and knowledge, which socially and religiously and politically was very dangerous ground to be on. All credit to Boyle who actually became instrumental in repealing the laws against Alchem, but was not successful in changing the clerical mind as to its inherent hellish and infernal origins.
This of ourse was a matter of great hypocrisy in that silver and gold were resplendent adornments of the most highly regarded church buildings and cleric, and indeed it was revered in every urging sermon to develop a purer life! Such Alchemists were given this social respectability provided they did not avow to any other gods! But, as Newton knew, the secret alchemical knowledge was encoded in the names of other gods. Thus to be an alchemist was to put ones physical body in many dangers, let alone to be inquisitioned, but also to put ones so called mortal soul in danger of Hellfire and damnation! This curious turn of events was peculiarly European, and arose out of the hatred of the western kings and their clerics against the Arabs and anything Arabic or Moorish. Under Islamic rule, every source of wisdom was a precious stone From Allah.
Maxwells mechanical explanation of the electric and magnetic fields proposed by Faraday as spheres of influence is consequently very ingenious indeed! He could use the successful collision models to model interactions that resulted in repulsion, and the newly accepted magnetic and electric fields to model both Attraction and repulsion. Also, the ether concept pervaded all scientific consciousness, and the notion of vortices were an easy model to explain mechanical attraction.
Maxwells deep insight into mechanical gear transmission systems enabled him to overcome the shortcomings of Lord Kelvin's( William Thompsons) vorticular model. This vorticular model was based on Helmholtz perfect fluid theory, and provided a kind of explanation for molecular bonds. But because it was kinetic, it did not povide a mechanism for wave transmission. This required a model that was bothe "rigid" and yet admissive of relative motions, and allowed the passage and indeed movement of large regions. Maxwells solution was ingenious. He established a honeycomb pattern of hexagonal vortices with ball bearings around them! this provided the gear transmission he felt was demonstrated by wave frequency, and also the rotational transmission he realised had to be there if he was going to use a vortex as a fundamental elelment.
If he just used spheres he ealised he could not account for the vorticesbecause the description would be too hard. so he used hexagons as an approximation, and also as a natural design found in nature. The transmission of stresses and strains through such a system were what he was after, and he made some progress in this complex, uniform fractal description. Everything had to be dynamic, and everything had to oscillate through rotation, so elasticity was not the required solution. A type of rigidity in the field was needed, and so the vortices had to have a rigid gear like role.At the same time they could not directly impinge on one another as the mechanical transmission would lead to a "jam", thus pure spheres were needed to allow the transmission to flow rotationally and in a gear like fashion.
For some of the spheres, transmission meant a contra motion to its immediate neigbours in a plane. No seconf level could be placed atop this plane because this led to mechanical restriction and friction. This is overcome in mechanical gears by providing plenty of grease to allow slippage. the slippage generates heat and vibration and these were desirable consequences in Maxwells system to explain the generation of heat and light in the field as well as the transmission of forces.As a consequence, Maxwell system is not accurate at this point, because heat and light like magnetic attraction were inherent properties of the field, heat and light emerging in proportion to the dynamism within the field. Thus heat is not explained by the structure, neither is light, but they both have associated wave and vibration patterns in the dynamic system!
Electricity and magnetism are not explained by Maxwells analysis, they are utilised to quantify the field effects, much as newton used matter to quantify the so called gravitational field. In fact the vortices are Maxwells contribution not only to Faradays field theory, but also to a more general notion of matter or materiality. It was Maxwells model of the field which mechanically provides a different gearlike explanation of matter and material structures. The electricity and magnetism is lost in this structure appearing only as the principles of attraction and or repulsion. The internal structure of the hexagonal vortices are not so much discussed by Maxwell, but Kelvins notion was that such vortices provided the centripetal force Newton searched for for so long. The question was how could something that attracted also repel? Helmholtz solution did not work because it relied on a closed loop. Such a loop could repel, but could not attract unless it drew in material from its surroundings, and then it violated Helmholtz principles. Nevertheless, Lord Kelvin persisten in asserting that such an intermingling took place, but there was no mechanical demonstration of it. Even smoke rings apparently bounced off each other! This kind of vortex theory therefore proved to be inadequate, and thus endangered Maxwells vortex structure. However, due to the idea of transmission rather than attraction, the theory was recast and then found to be highly valuable in explaining electromagnetic field transmissions. The vortex structure was unceremoniously dumped, and electric charge and mass became 2 articles of faith for the engineer which gave the correct calculation results.
The missing explanation of the centripetal force was obscured by dropping the notion of the centrifugal force! That left the centripetal force of gravity, magnetism and electric charge as the only "explanations"!
The shunya field attempts a mechanical explanation like Maxwells, but this time the field paradigm is not a uniform structure, but a fractal structure. The vortices themselves are also not just spheres but toroidal forms. The spiral effect of condensation and rarefaction are emphasized as the only active principles, and this is the structure that i propose explains all fields and from these all matter.
Here we see how the scientific community has blinded it's eyes to other possibilities from Newton's principles. Not even Newton figured out how to synthesise useful alternative models and demonstrations of them, but at least he did not seek to deny them