Some research tools for Faraday in order to compare his work and Ed Leedskanlins.
The third law of motion captures all that is essential in a philosophical analysis of mans interaction with space as mused and philosophised by numerous Greek philosophers and those that learned from them . In particular Herakleitos defined what later came to be called physics and mechanics in his concepts of Phusis and Rhea. These were taken to be primordial substances by the time of the Pythagorean schools, and the perpetual motion of reality was in this way enshrined in later Greek philosophical analyses and syntheses as a consequence of oppositional motions and states.
This concept of contra motions and states guided all natural( ie " of the goddess Natura or Phusis and Harmonia, muses of ancient Greek mythology), that is to complete the though, all Natural Philosophy including Epicurean and other schools of thought.
Newton defines Action loosely in the opening chapter of the Principia in a general discussion of his method , approach, sources and innovative definitions. It is clear that Newton was an assiduous experimentalist of an exacting nature, seeking principles that harmonise seemingly disparate areas of mechanics , and doing so sets out his method of metaphysical philosophy by which he structured his Astrological Principles, usually translated as Mathematical Principles.
Thus he lays out for consideration many philosophical principles that an Astrologer might employ to come to a version of God's Truth in so far as it may be known by man. Underpinning this is the ad infinitum philosophies of Zeno and Parmenides as the later Greek philosophers absorbed them into an iterative process of analysis and synthesis. This Newton experienced as a dynamic fluidity which he called The Method Of Fluents. The third law of motion therefore has a great universal sweep from the minuscule, some say infinitesimal or Quantum, through the everyday, to the celestial grandeur, some say infinite or cosmological.
This sweeping movement through scale is at once acknowledged and ignored! It took Mandelbrot to point out that scale has to be factored in recursively into every formulation. The tendency was and still is to find exact and exacting solutions to clearly interdependent formulations. This tendency swept so called chaos monsters under the carpet. Ed Lorenz showed that we can not do that anymore. This fractal, iterative and recursive( almost self similar ) tautology was refused by certain Western schools of philosophy, but embraced by eastern philosophies. The point here is that it is embraced by Newton, and presented in a form palatable to western religious Credos.
Of course Newton's principa was a worldwide success, bought by all philosophers of merit in the West and in the East, and understood according to the local philosophical schools of thought. Thus many Eastern philosophies after Newton had a take or point of view on what he had to say to Astrologers. Many recognised the source of his ideas, something his own peers were unable or unwilling to do.
The final aspect of the third law, as investigated by De Moivre was the probabilistic and or statistical nature of its application to complex mechanical situations. It was Maxwell who laid this aspect out in the now standard form s for statistical Mechnics.
With this considerable metaphysical and theoretical and statistical framework it became possible to tackle the issue of action at a distance enshrined at the centre of these principles, but not at all. Understood by Newton. The third law covers action at a distance but Newton was never willing to say how! Frankly he did not know how magnetism did what it did. I have explained that Newton placed magnetism tentatively at the heart of his celestial motive model. He was not being revolutionary. His was the respected conclusion of Gilbert. Boyle also wrote speculatively about this action between the celestial bodies. However Boyle and other Alchemists including Newton were constrained in exploring this openly due to British Laws against Alchemy and religious Law against Occultism.
Both Boyle and Newton through his Principles helped to get this law repealed so that the floodgates opened all the research into magnetism which included an associated effect called by Gilbert Electra magnetism , could flood out. However it was Faraday that stimulated a greater interest in what he calls electric Tension, on the back of many magical curios from European researchers and astrologers who had to make a living by patronage, very much likeable researchers and Academics before them.
Across Europe the interest in magnetism and electric magnetism grew and spread into the Americas, but it was Faraday who took a leading role in this development publishing thousands of experiments in the Royal society publications that went all around the world by the British Empire postal system, and stimulated interest and involvement, bringing to light what previously was done in this subject by others, published in their scientific societies but left to languish as occult knowledge!
This greater openness and transparency and eagerness to share led to the Newtonian Frameworks being applied to this growing subject just as Newton suggested it should. It was a revelation to see that Newtons force laws when applied to electric forces took the same kind of universal form as he had suggested for the magnetic forces between planets, commonly called Gravity because no magnets of suitable size or power could be envisaged, and magnets only attracted "Irom" it was thought. Plus Newton was not prepared to publicly back a magnetic gravity without empirical and experimental demonstration. As I said, he did not know enough to be able to do this, plus collision between corpuscles was the hot favourite in his time. La Sage spent a lifetime advancing that proposition and nearly demonstrating it, but the opinion now is that he failed to account for all empirical data. Newton, in order to preserve his work and theoris from reputational Harm had to box very cleverly. There were no end of theories that have been proposed and lost to antiquity, or fallen out of fashion, or thought to be obsolete. This would have been an unacceptable outcome for Newton, after all he had devoted his life to his theoretical pursuits. It would be inconceivable to stand before God nd admit to getting it wrong! That as a devout Christian of Protestant persuasions he could never knowingly do! We measure his devotion by what he gave up while at Cambridge, and apart from wine women and song, he gve up countless hours of sleep to pursue the correct account of all observations far into the night.
Faradays electric tension, and then Leydens Electric Current in a wire were all new groundbreaking insights into matter and it's substantive behaviours. Those who read Newton would know that his definition of Matter in the principles was now untenable. However no one thought to revise his definitions until Einstein! This was because the third law was so useful no one wanted or deigned to harm it, instead they just copied it, fitting it to situations as they saw fit, ignorant of the whole connectedness of Newton's principles for Astrologers. In fact, even after a century of applying them, many still wanted to gain fame by proving them wrong. This lead to a vigorous defence of long established and valued principles that tended to squash any innovation.
The corpuscular theory of matter had been rewritten by JJ Thompson to introduce particles distinguished by Charge. It was revised again by Rutherford and Bohr. Einstein did not agree with some of the implications behind the revisions because none of them were willing to address the logical problem of the concept of mass. The concept of mass was so enshrined in every formula that it was taken for granted. Many false arguments ensued because everyone thought they new what mass was. Nobody returned to Newton to revise the definition of mass according to the new corpuscukar theory because it was thought to be the same in aggregate. Einstein demonstrated that that was possibly a wrong assumption in a wacky theory he had . In epoch of this revision of the corpuscular theory experimenters were finding that mass was possibly due to magnetism! Experimental measurement were showing an increase in mass with an increased strength of magnetic field. Before this could be developed Einstein wrote his papers in 1905 and everyone abandoned their theories and began to verify Einstein's by the experimental method. Einsteins reputation began to grow, but he was still not uncritically accepted, because his synthesis of others research by logical deduction was counter intuitive. Those who later came to support his theories did so by force of experimental data.
When the second world war broke out scientists were marshaled into corps to fight the enemy. One curious result to do with radioactive elements drove the research from that point on. Hahn had found that there was a missing energy in accounting for radioactive decay. When the accounting was done it seemed to equal Einsteins rest energy theory! This put Einstein in Lead position and forced everyone to review the definition of mass.But also the propaganda machine could use him to cover their secret work while appearing transparent. His prestige was used to influence policy while distrusting his allegiance to the secret goal of atomic weaponry. The establishment used anything and anyone to further their aims. This included using his name to justify a radicle revision of the cu;ture of scientific collaboration. During the war the aether and the spacetime descriptions separated vitriolically, an attitude still rife today.
In late 1938, while on the winter walk on which they solved the meaning of Hahn's experimental results and introduced the idea that would be called atomic fission, Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch made direct use of Einstein's equation to help them understand the quantitative energetics of the reaction which overcame the "surface tension-like" forces holding the nucleus together, and allowed the fission fragments to separate to a configuration from which their charges could force them into an energetic "fission"
After the very public demonstration of huge energies released from nuclear fission after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, the equation E = mc2 became directly linked in the public eye with the power and peril of nuclear weapons. The equation was featured as early as page 2 of the Smyth Report, the official 1945 release by the US government on the development of the atomic bomb, and by 1946 the equation was linked closely enough with Einstein's work that the cover of Time magazine prominently featured a picture of Einstein next to an image of a mushroom cloud emblazoned with the equation. Einstein himself had only a minor role in the Manhattan Project: he had cosigned a letter to the U.S. President in 1939 urging funding for research into atomic energy, warning that an atomic bomb was theoretically possible. The letter persuaded Roosevelt to devote a significant portion of the wartime budget to atomic research. Without a security clearance, Einstein's only scientific contribution was an analysis of an isotope separation method in theoretical terms. It was inconsequential, on account of Einstein not being given sufficient information (for security reasons) to fully work on the problem.
The above Wikipedia article does a good job of highlighting the distinctions between mass and matter, but only because it ignores the clear historical meaning given by Newton to Mass in his formulation. However it clearly illustrates ow scientists subtly rework the meaning of terms to preserve valued formulae. This is mostly done by peer review so as to maintain the financial advantages of the status quo. It is then ruthlessly defended!
Newton's third law has underpinned all of this scientific analysis, but the present gatekeepers have a definite motive to keep newton out of the financial picture/
My point here is that we should not seek validation by such scientific cabals, rather by applying Newton's Principles like Ed Leedskalnin and many others we should make our own devices and technologies for our own personal benefit and those who wish to participate with us in a collaborative effort. The internet makes this an incresingly viable thing to do, and the genii must not be allowed to be put back in the bag!
Newton's Principia Mathematica are a Astrological and Celestial Mechanics that encompasses all we want to know about Electromagnatism and Quantum Mechanics, as well as rock moving mechanics!