It occurred to me that magnetism is clearly and physically associated with rock, a particular rock crystal called lodestone. However no one had presented me with a similar natural form for electric charge.. Kaolin was the answer.
One might of course jump to the friction on amber or glass effects,piezo electric effect, or the semiconductor behaviour of some dielectrics, but these are not electrostatic phenomenon au naturelle. In the literature it is the soft rock the clays that dominate as examples of electrostatic phenomenon.
Evenso it is hard to find much tht is not technical on the subject. The rare earth magnets now take on a different aspect when electrostatic clays are taken into account. The research continues.
The silt and clay size categories roughly correspond to different minerals. Silt particles are usually quartz or feldspar—miniature sand grains—while clay is usually clay minerals. Silt particles therefore are tough and inert, like billiard balls. Even when they're eroded to clay size, they form a crumbly sediment. But clay crystals are microscopic flakes that stick strongly together with electrostatic forces, accounting for the plastic behavior of clay.
It seems like prudent to learn from this phenomenological datum in forming atomic theories! Rather than proceeding to the nth degree as hard billiard balls we need to establish some planar structure as scales decrease!
Now ,there is a theoretical model called the Mbrane theory that grew out of the string theoretical school of thought. Recently this has morphed into the Dbrane theory.
Such theoretical structures may or may not model this phenomenon of clay behaviours at this scale, but regardless, the point is that they are based on some continuous media that is capable of cat
rrying a vibration. Where they lack is in not incorporating fluid dynamical principles at this scale And Ed Lorenz aperiodic dynamical principles.
Further research into the electrostatic, the electric and the magnetic properties of silts and clays will be in order. The characterisation into dielectric and diamagnetic may reveal some consonant ideas and the prevalent use of fluid dynamic principles may be extremely productive.
Google electric silts and clays.
Diamagnetic- magnetic susceptibility.
All soils carry a charge, either positive or negative. The measure and direction of that charge can vary during the season and depending upon how that soil is managed. This charge determines how ions are held and how they behave when in contact with the soil colloid and plant root. Most temperate soils are considered to be stable charge negative, meaning that they favor the retention of cations, as these are positively charged ions that are attracted to the negatively charged colloid, and that the net charge will remain negative. Some humid tropical soils, those that have high levels of iron in particular, can at times be classified as variable charge soils. The net current of these soils can vary, being either positive or negative. Therefore, the AEC (Anion Exchange Capacity) of soils in the humid tropics can dominate as much as the CEC in a temperate soil (temperate soils also hold anions and this should be noted, the difference is the net dominance of a single charge.) Here in the temperate Northeast, we can assume our soils charge to be net negative, but that does not mean that we cannot manage its current, or should not be concerned with its electromagnetic properties. I should warn all those who need to verify anything they believe with a scientific reference, some of what follows is a bit of an uncharted territory within scientific and agricultural communities. Certain solids, depending upon the crystal structures that form them, are classified as paramagnetic or diamagnetic depending upon how they interact with electromagnetic current and field. The father of biodynamics, Rudolf Stiener, wrote about the balancing of paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials. He emphasized the ability of paramagnetic materials such as silica to align and draw in the influence of the far cosmic forces: Saturn, Mars and Jupiter. In biodynamics, these forces are drawn into and moderated by the diamagnetic or repellent materials like lime. Steiner asserted that lime influences the plant to pull down to the soil its above ground work: the products of what Steiner referred to as aerial digestion or what we might think of as photosynthesis and gas exchange. Now, I am not a biodynamic farmer, and I struggle with many of Steiner’s ideas, however, let’s not throw the baby out with the bath water. We just established that the soil needs to draw down energy from the plant: sugars and root exudates. These are the products of aerial digestion or sunlight and atmosphere, if that term is holding you up. Steiner also placed an emphasis on the soil clay as a conduit between the flow of the energy absorbed by the paramagnetic materials toward the plant roots. OK. So we know our clay and SOM play a key role in adsorbing nutrients for the plant root. In addition, humus and air are both paramagnetic, further building our healthy soils energy potential. It seems that what is missing, what we have not covered conceptually already is this what this paramagnetic influence actually is. Remember, the earth has a magnetic field generated by what scientists believe to effectively be an enormous dynamo in its center, two charged masses rotating and generating a magnetic field. Now, to remember our atoms from a few pages ago, each of the electrons held on those atoms can be statistically predicated to occupy a specific energy shell. Each electron is also spinning around its axis while in that shell. Electrons in the same shell will have opposite spins, clockwise and anticlockwise. When a material is paramagnetic, it is attracted to and aligns to an applied magnetic field, like the one operating within this planet, or as many would argue that operating in other planets. To avoid getting too far out, let’s stay on earth for now. When paramagnetic objects are under the force of an electromagnetic field its electrons experience a magnetic moment, and change spin direction. This event can actually drive these atoms to align in relation to the applied field. A classic example of this is a compass point, which aligns toward magnetic north. Does this phenomenon explain why vegetables grown in the far north, where the electromagnetic field on this earth is greatest, grow to sizes exceeding similar varieties grown to the their south? Or why roots tend to favor the northern side of a row? Again, think of the electrons. When an object is diamagnetic it is also usually diaelectric or acts as an insulator when in contact with electrical current. In contrast, some paramgnetic materials allow current to pass. Crystals within paramagnetic objects are at such a spacing that as current passes and excites electrons they are allowed to jump between each crystal’s outer most electron shell. In diamagnetic materials the crystals are spaced so that electrons cannot jump between electron shells and current is interrupted or blocked. So, a soil with the right paramagnetic material will tend to 1) react toward and align with an electromagnetic field, and 2) enhance the conductivity or current flow of a given soil. What does this mean for our soil ecosystem, or the uptake of plant nutrients, or our soil air, lest we forget? Well, I am not absolutely sure. What I do believe is that this force is a real, measurable phenomenon within a soil, and its intensity probably plays a huge role in determining the pace of the system. Scientists have found plants grow faster and seed germination is quicker in soils given a controlled electric charge. More specifically, if a soil has the right resonance to electromagnetic fields, the flow of ions, the rate of adsorbtion, and all the biological processes within that soil would be at a rate of some proportion to that force. Conversely, a soil that did not have the appropriate paramagnetic/ diamagnetic balance would function, but at a lesser rate, and would not take advantage of all the free energy generated from our earth. If we create a dynamic electromagnetic balance, the soil ecosystem and nutrient cycling can respond to the varying electromagnetic pulses sent from this and other planets. Planets in our solar system all emit radiation and tests have shown they can influence plant growth. Maria Thun, one of the American pioneers of biodynamics, has tested the influence of different planets on plant growth. Her results are worth investigating. She and many others have recognized that these forces are inherent, all biology including our crops have evolved with them, and we might as well try to understand and incorporate them into the management of our soils. Seeds sown during times of corresponding planetary influence – influences on the harvested anatomy of that crop: roots, leafs, flowers, fruits – perform better; have higher yields and resistance to disease and insects. Why is this? In Biodynamic agriculture, the soil is said to deeply inhale the collective influences of the cosmos during the winter and exhales these forces through the soil life during the summer. As far out as this sounds, studies have actually shown that paramagnetic crystals within the earth undergo changes in structure during the winter, altering their alignment slightly while absorbing energy. As the temperature climbs these structures shift again and energy is released. If we maintain the right balance of materials in our soils we can maximize the influences of this cycle of inhalation and exhalation: allowing our crops to capture the energy breathed through this earth.
The predominant use of the atomic electron model should not be taken for granted. The model itself is suspect especially in the intermediary notions of charge and charge adherence. The fundamental mode is that of the Ion, by which a dual contra substance structure is described. This is the dual fluid theory, rejected by Franklin, and others leading directly to the invention of the electron concept, a mistaken single fluid theory which has been abandoned. We are now in a MULTI fluid theory often called modern particle physics.
The issue here is the mitigation of unnecessary complexity. A two fluid theory with distinct viscosity coefficients may be a simpler more satisfying notion, to which fluid dynamical notions would bring harmonising insights.
A long thread on an investigation, with head scratching included!
Does electrolysis demonstrate a "current", or is it a disturbance in the dielectrics?
How can AC be "conducted, and DC blocked, if there is a "current"?
A disturbance of the dielectric seems to be consistent.
Faraday discovered dielectrics, diamagnetism , and electrolysis/