I was going to describe this as magnetic heat theory, but have thought better of perpetuating an old and obsolete paradigm
The toroidal unstable force regions found everywhere in space I opposing pairs are where my description begins.
These opposing toroidal regional pairs are in dynamic equilibria, but individually, as far as can be ascertained a toroidal pair are dynamically unstable in every orientation. This instability is resolved into orthogonal action structures which exhibit a toroidal Spaciometry that is dynamic, unstable and fluid.
However, to simplify the exposition I will consider a fractally distributed region of such unstable toroidal pairs where the instabilities are dynamically slow. Because this is a fractal description the considerations are scalable in an almost exact way up or down. Thus, by observing slow moving analogous systems I will elucidate the essential behaviours.
One fundamental attribute of space is shear. It is absolutely crucial for fluid dynamics, and appropriate for a fluid dynamical,model or theory of space .
Shear is founded on my innate or proprioceptive notion of regionality derived from the conjugation process. This notion under pins the boundary notion by an unconscious process of existential perception or ontological identification .
From the conscious apprehension of region based on the proprioception of focus and orientation in the visual parasympathetic nervous system mesh, as well as the wider confirmation by the kinaesthetic mesh I am able to perceive within the visual senses variations in sequences of experience that mark ot a difference. These variations tend to be identifiably regional with a closed or joined up experience which we distinguish by the term boundary..
This boundary experience is not just visual, but often backed up by other sensory mesh sequence experience which can be combined to the visual,by an identification.
The notion of boundary in this fractal region is crucial to establishing the fractal behavioural relationships between regions and sub regions, and in addition identifying " lined" of fracture, shear and friction.
The notion of shear is developed from these characteristics of the fractal regional boundary plus the application of a force that is narrowly applied. The force may be applied by an edge or a slip plane between two objects with a common plane. It may involve a body of matter moving against laterally or into directly another body of matter. What I observe I call by various names: a mark, cut, cleave fracture, shatter, separation, slip, slide, bend, twist , blunt, dent, squidge, squash, flattening, elongation, tapering etc. all of these describe a transformation, brought about by a transformative action which reveals a full or partial relative motion between bounded fractal regions in the material.
The actions that are usually considered are torquing, rotating, levering, compressing, stretching , cutting and hammering. In this case we will also add heating by fire for a more subtle and penetrating action. I will include gas and electric cutting methods under fire.
Newton, in book 2 of his 3 volume work, began to apply his method to fluids.
My Design in this Book is not to explain the Properties of Light by Hypotheses, but to propose and prove them by Reason and Experiments: In order to which, I shall premise the following Definitions and Axioms.
— Sir Isaac Newton
Opticks (1704), Book 1, Part 1, Introduction, 1.
Science quotes on: | Axiom (10) | Book (78) | Definition (71) | Experiment (346) | Explanation(75) | Hypothesis (145) | Light (99) | Proof (120) | Property (37) | Proposition (25) | Reason (146)
The quote illustrates Newton's approach. It reveals his work as heavily influenced by Barrow and Wallis, who made it a point that Newton assimilate the Stoikeioon of Euclid. Barrow his Mathematics tutor, who was responsible for introducing the term Mathematicks into the classical academic curriculum, and the reason why Mathematicks was an arts subject for so long, returned midway through Newton's university career with a lot of documents on classical Greek and renaissance Mechanicks. these he laid out before the college fathers and students as Mathematicks.
( I stand corrected by these latest articles on my knowledge of Newton's life and scholarship!)
Newton, therefore in writing opticks was laying out a Stoikeioon for light, just as Euclid had laid out a Stoikeioon for Socratic and Platonic Ideas/Forms.
That Newton knew this form of presentation is not an exposition of " reality" but rather a model of "Reality" is reflected in his opinions about algebra. Algebra to Newton was heuristics, the groping of the minds of men to an understanding of gods works. Consequently he saw no need to publish how he came to grasp the content of his assertions, lemmae( meditations) and his theorems. He simply tasked himself to set out his conclusions as clearly as Euclid did. It was Wallis, who loving Algebra compromised with him over the publication of his reasonings and manipulations.
The course of this present theory will observe the materials and the consequences of their collision. It will draw attention to the encouragement of heat in a colliding body along with not usually attended to properties of sparks, vibrations, sounds and deformations that indicate shearing. Temperature will be defined as an indicator of a proprioceptive experience called heat, but which exhibits not a measure or quantification of heat but an attendant property of heat " pressure", that is expansion encouraged by heat.
It will be observed that the greater the heat pressure the higher the temperature indicator is pushed, and these conditions both are felt as warmth or hotness.
It will also be observed that the quantity of matter is a proportional indicator of any quantity of heat, and that this quantity of heat demonstrates a heat pressure by expanding the volume of a given quantity of matter, however sheared.
The motions of collision and the actions as modeled by Newton's 3 rd law will be shown to encourage and excite the production of heat and sparks, and the development of a heat pressure. This effect will be shown to attend transformations in the Spaciometry of the material, the encouragement of lines and planes of slippage and shear and the fracture and friction of contiguous parts of matter both external and internal.
The production of heat , heat pressure and spark will be fully accounted for and the electrostatic and magnetic natures of these consequents dwelt upon.
By a process of reasoning a model of a mechanical nature concentrating on a particular set of motions peculiar to the trochoid family and showing them to be a suitable superstructure on which to hang definitions of quantity relating to work, energy ( kinetic or dynamic and potential) and the quantities of induced motions both internal and as a summed whole for each volume of material.
In addition the dynamic pressure equilibrium which Inheres all materials to a particular region in and of space will be examined to provide a fractal or recursive model of the underpinning force balances that being disturbed give rise to the motions on which notions of energy will be based.
Because this is a much finer division that normal mechanics, a fluid dynamical paradigm will be used in which will appear not only translation, but also rotation and oscillation of a Metron stream , as a translating stream current combined with that Metron stream oscillating and rotating relative to its local reference frame.
I will start by looking at all the phenomena of collision, compression, shearing and pulling apart in mechanical material science. The materials looked at will have a wide range of viscosity.
I will also require the magneto statics and dynamics, and the electrostatics and dynamics of fluids, particularly in the state called plasma.
The proposition of a notion of force as opposed to a quantity of force will need to be carefully unravelled. Few realise that the clever Mr Newton made force independent of source as a quantity, for if whatever source could accelerate a quantity of matter in a measurable way, such a quantity of force was defined regardless of source.
However, I wish not to repeat Mr Newtons admirable philosophy but to extend it's application to the fluid paradigm of matter, both metaphysically and in any notational consequence that may arise in fully accounting for all sources especially thermal, magnetic and electric and sonic and of course kinetic.
The clash that currently exists between aero hydrodynamic models and the supposed "realistic models" is the reliance on a particulate theory of viscosity. It is assumed that Newtonian fluids are continuous, and thus any distribution of matter by shearing is continuous. The fact that matter is assumed to be continuous is not a problem introduced by Newton, but by Bernoulli and later Euler, stokes and Navier and Prandtl.
Newton applied his principles of fluents heuristicslly, not deeming them as part of the visible solution. Thus many that followed him were not aware precisely how he applied the method of fluents to fluid motions. The onion of Lubricity therefore gives way to slipperiness which is later replaced by a molecular Lchemical model of viscosity.
Of course viscosity should have arisen from newtons notion of Lubricity!. If it had, we would not need to give credence to a particulate model at all , and we could explain material behaviours in wholly fluidic terms..
Fluid dynamics does not exclude small scale fluid flow phenomena of low Lubricity or that fluid composition may not be uniform. In fact I specifically eschew the uniform case and start with a fractal distribution of viscosities.. This more complex dynamic clearly can model my experience of space as a flowing contiguous medium of fractally regionalised densities/ viscosities in which the flow is fractally arbitrary.
The continuity of space is shear able into these fractal regions along contiguous fractal regional boundaries, at which Wada basin conditions are implied, and thus no empty space exists. These wada brains Re never empty, but always filled with fractals at some lower scale of density. Also these wada basins attract or allow larger regions to flow into them to populate them on a basis of dynamic potential eqyilibria.
The fractal boundary conditions including Wada basins will therefore be significant in determining larger scale emergent behaviours in this fluid flow of an arbitrary nature.
Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book, which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1, here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance; thus Section 1 discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity, and Section 2 goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6, along with Newton's account of experiments that he carried out, to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape, attempts to derive the speed of sound, and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3, and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). According to this Cartesian theory of vortices, planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena, and served not so much to explain as to confuse them.
We see here the thoroughness of Newton before he ventured an opinion. But we also see the difficulty of his researches and why he failed to establish a fluid dynamic model, not the least being the haste under which he wrote and completed his experiments. Having excluded also magneto electric affects he was unable to come to a safe conclusion!
The confusion he refers to is a religious not a mechanical one. He would not be drawn into occult powers or practices which electric phenomena appeared to him to be. Whatever it was it was certainly the remit of the gods not man to inquire further. He was content to enjoy the sparks.