On a Theory of Bubbles

On a particle of heat
Consider a fluid element.
It’s definition shall be a bounded region of SpaceMatter with its local reference frame, inhering lines of vorticity around which smaller scale regions of turbulence flow axially with variable bounds. A region of turbulence is a fractal consisting is smaller scale lines of vorticity with their own regions of turbulence. The SpaceMatter will define a fluid elements characteristic density and viscosity/ lubricity, but these characteristic dimensions are dynamically active within a fluid element.
Driving the dynamic within a fluid element is an active variable pressure system partitioned into a boundary layer pressure system coupling to an internal volumetric pressure system. The variation in these pressure systems drives the fractal vorticity cascade and the dynamic variations ln local density and viscosity/ lubricity. A fluid element is always in dynamic local motion at its boundary.

I will now define the dynamic fluid element as a heat element characterised by its characteristic boundary oscillation. Thus it’s amplitude and frequency at its boundary characterises heat and radiation for the element and potential energy of transmission to external fluid elements.

I now make a distinction between heating and cooling, also between hot and cold.
A defined heat element is susceptible to the effects of pressure acting on the boundary pressure system and consequently transmitted to the internal volumetric pressure system . The effects of external pressure variations are measured by the change in he characteristic oscillation.
A process of determining a characteristic oscillation for a heat element is not prescribed, but I suggest that it should perhaps involve the GMB distribution, and have a value linked to the activation characteristics of an animate heat sensor.

Thus I can establish an environmental pressure variation link to the notion of heating a fluid element.
The notion of cooling a fluid element however is not the reverse of heating. A fluid element is cooled only by dispersal and loss of integrity.
I define cooling by the decrease in the characteristic oscillation for a fixed volume of space, not for a fixed heat element.
A volume of space is fixed in some reference frame . Fluid elements move through that volume characteristically . A combined value of their individual characteristic oscillations is derived to characterise the volume. One measure of this combined value is the heat pressure probe called a thermometer.

For this fixed volume the absence of heat elements will give a characteristic value that lower. In particular if a fluid element disintegrates its contribution to the characteristic is replaced by smaller fractal regions. If these smaller regions move out of that fixed volume or are dispersed, or indeed if any fluid element is dispersed by a flow then the characteristic volume oscillation will change. This change due to dispersal I will call cooling.
At some stage the cold sensors will switch on.
Hot, warm cold are therefore general descriptors of the status of the sensory meshes for heat and cold..
The transmission of heat will be expressed as the coupling process of oscillating fluid elements and the achieving of a characteristic oscillation for the new enlarged system of fluid elements.

I note the potential for heating to be a sonic process driven by the behaviours of boundary pressure systems in supersonic venturi flow, and the possibility of other heating related effects as the boundary pressure systems react to the boundary dynamics and drive the boundary dynamics at supersonic venturi flows.

I recognise the potential for vorticity to influence boundary pressure systems, to effect thinning or thickening of the boundary through turbulence, and for the turbulence to be the source of nucleation for bubble formation and heat pressure phase transformation in the fluid..

I describe phase transformation as a fluid characteristic transformation and a substance change.. Thus there are many substance and some are within other substances.
If the transformation is reversible I will define the substances as having a family relationship. If the transformation is not reversible I will describe the substances as having an elemental relationship.
Any further transformation I will call plasma relationships. If there are further transformations in plasma substances I will think of some distinction.

Each kind of substance will have its own characteristics, but I am thinking at the moment that electric may be the description for one type of substance from a plasma transformation, and magnetic may be a transformation from an electric plasma transformation.. There may be plasma transformations beyond these substances.
When JJ Thompson weighed the anode to determine the mass of the electrons added to it, this was on the basis that an electron was a building block of matter. Thus he used an electrolysis concept of cathode ray production. In so doing he neglected to take away the anode ray component to find the mass difference.

By renaming it a charge carrier the electrolytic action is masked. In a valve a material is heated to provide an electrolyte. Electrolysis then takes place.

In a so called phase change, when a substance is transformed into another substance a characteristic change in the lubricity / vorticity occurs. Generally prior to the Chang lubricity goes from high to low, while viscosity goes from low to high. Kinaesthetically the sensation of slipperiness gives way to drag / friction and finally to stubborn resistance. The velocity profiles of the boundary layer also Chang so that the boundary layer is thin in high lubricity and low viscosity, but thickening in high viscosity low lubricity. Turbulence or vorticity also in the boundary layer increases and “grows” exponentially, spreading outside the boundary layer in highly viscous circumstances . Terminal velocities for the fluid also play a figurative role. Fluids moving faster than a fluids terminal velocity suffer phase changes that can go all the way to super plasma behaviours.


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