Reversible catalytic reactions in homeostatic equiibrium..
THE MECHANISM FOR THE ACID CATALYSED HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS
This page looks in detail at the mechanism for the hydrolysis of esters in the presence of a dilute acid (such as hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid) acting as the catalyst. It uses ethyl ethanoate as a typical ester.
The mechanism for the hydrolysis of ethyl ethanoate
A reminder of the facts
Ethyl ethanoate is heated under reflux with a dilute acid such as dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute sulphuric acid. The ester reacts with the water present to produce ethanoic acid and ethanol.
Because the reaction is reversible, an equilibrium mixture is produced containing all four of the substances in the equation. In order to get as much hydrolysis as possible, a large excess of water can be used. The dilute acid provides both the acid catalyst and the water.[/quote}
[quote]Chemical reactions are divided into two major categories: reversible and non-reversible. A typical chemical reaction takes specific reactants and proceeds to produce a product. A reversible reaction is one that can go from products to reactants. Equilibrium reactions work in this manner, in which the amount of a favored product depends on the equilibrium conditions at that time. In the human body, there are a few reversible reactions.
Read more: Are Chemical Reactions in the Body Reversible? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8592966_chemical-reactions-body-reversible.html#ixzz2Qi20jT44[/quote]
Clearly Homeostasis is a complex concept of equilibria in a reversible reaction or interaction system, but it is important to note its many analogie to dynamic equilibrium in fluid dynamic systems.
The notion of a catalyst as a substrate is alo important. Substrates can be complexified to include dynamic forms of a fracral nature. Think for example of a Peanocurve or a holbert curve as a model of a substrate, acting dynamically.
It is possible to conceive of and we should conceive of water as such a complex substrate.
Let me now posit space as a universal solvent into which electric and magnetic solutes dissolve. We may determine concentrations/densities of the 2 types of electric substance by the pH scale or the litmus solution colour test, but what about magnetism?
There are now som magnetically reactive substanceswhich also reveal magnetism by light change change
For longitudinal waves such as sound waves in fluids, the direction of oscillation is by definition along the direction of travel, so there is no polarization. In a solid medium, however, sound waves can be transverse. In this case, the polarization is associated with the direction of the shear stress in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. This is important in seismology
Apart from the notion that sound is not polarized the rest is helpful. Compression waves are polarized by fanning outin a sphere. transverse waves fan out in a vortex form. Polarization tries to make a distinction about rotation by using a pole in a plane to represent transverse motion. It must be emphasised that the plane is a test measure, not a description of motion. If i place the test measure in front of the compression wave i will not see the wave expanding as a surface unless it travels with the wave. It is better to use a test volume for compressive waves, then the polarization becomes evident. The compression and rarefaction also do not behave like a ransverse wave in erms of simple displacement . The surface of the compression is expanding, but also the surface of the rarefaction expands as the elements return to place, that is to say the returning elements return to a lower pressure by expanding into it not by recompressing, which they would if they returned radially.. Thus the pressure system becomes complex after a compression has passed through. This is experienced as a weaker back pressure passing through and around the source not "to" the point source.
This back pressure wave is concave if the compression wave is convex. The concavity of the back wave front does lead to a compression but not by the elemrnts returning radially . This implosion event is complex , but may generate a secondary but weaker explosive event and so on,
to demonstrate polarization in a compressive event use a narrow cross volume.
So, with the solvent spacematter and the solutes electric and magnetic substances it sis clear that currently their differences seem to be that of ponderousneess. Electric substance can change coloursof light passing through litmus solution magnetic substance can do it slightly, but interacts more with the density of a volume, rotating itabout a symmetrical centre of the 2 forms of magnetism in space. Electric substance seems to be more quick;y and easily disposed in a solution in space matter while magnetic tends to clump in regions.