Levity has all but been forgotten. And yet it is one of those notions that simply explains certain observations.
Certain philosophers elected to remove or combine certain dual by inverse notions. That is, if gravity obeys an inverse square law of radial and areal action, then levity should obey a square law of radial and areal action.
Because we are more often hoodwinked than nlightened, the elliptical basis of Newtonian inverse square laws and the logos analogos framework of it are frequently not expounded. In fact Newton is hardly ever expounded, rather his theorem s and Lemmae are. His Porisms are often ignored and his Lemmae rushed by.
Newtonian motive represents a considerable philosophical innovation. Because of it the topic of inverse duals is unified. Thus gravit and Levity, magnetic north and south behaviours, electrostatic dual fluid behaviours, heat and cold , light and darkness.
It has emerged thatvNewton was the foremost Alhemist of his times, and was in consultation with Robert Boylle on many Issues which they both had an interest in. However, in. Northern Europe Alchemy was tightly controlled in order to preserve the kings gold, a very real threat to nation states at the time. Thus Alchemists were a very tight and exclusive circle of those with royal indentures and those without the pale! Those without the pale( fence) were left to the ravages of the religious fanatics who condemned all Alchemy as infernal works!
The political and religious stigma associated to general Alchemy was enough to keep most of the populace alert to such nefarious deeds as the practice of Alchemy and witchcraft and Sorcery. Thus it was not a study to be lightly entered into. The fact that Newton did enter into it, with considerable success, is due too careful and private arrangements, which nevertheless were not unknown to the royal spies.
Newton's prowess in intellectual affairs were well known and respected, and his considerable skills, private manner and extreme caution actually prepared him for his later role at the royal mint as chief Assayers of the kings gold and silver.
In this role he distinguished himself as a formidable foe to criminal Alchemy. At the same time, he behind the scenes and Boyle more openly, petitioned for a freedom under law and license to practice Alchemy in England and dependencies. This was eventually granted, breaking the power of the religious lobby to condemn and destroy scientific advancement through alchemical studies.
Newtonian motive, while a fundamental philosophical principle, required data to establish its utility. The greatest amount of data was known about the Astrological charts and tables of star positions. From this data, using the principle go motive , Newton was able to draw spaciometric diagrams and then use Apollonian conic notions to describe the proportions of the forms.
The use of Logos Analogos by this time was sophisticated enough to make certain relations of length and area commensurable. Underpinning this was the Euclidean factorisation, but this time into multiple forms which themselves were multiple forms, ad infinitum. This process he called Fluxions.
From Fluxions Newyon found that the factorisation had approximate , truncated forms which remained constant. These he called fluents. They represented the resultants of " ultimate" division or limit processes. These enabled him to hold in his hand the instantaneous moment by moment value of a magnitude that changed at each moment. This was like having an ultra high speed camera, taking video stills ever nanosecond.
Thus, quite naturally Newtonian motive could be applied moment by moment. The direction and amount of each magnitude was crucial to explaining behaviour, but Newton only had detailed data for orbits of planets. For this it was constructible to describe the motion as a resultant of two other forces acting a parallelogram structure.
Newtonian motive was worked into these expositions, but no one it seems was that interested in levity. However Newton was not able to see how motive differentiated into gravity and levity because he defined density using the relative gravity of 2 volumes of matter!
This method which is one of many, goes back to Archimedes. He recognised that a solid that does not dissolve displaces its own volume in liquid. By comparing these 2 identical or dual volumes on a balance, the relative gravity of both becomes evident. This relative gravity was defined as relative density, that is density of gravitational motive.
This same method is utilised in determining the volume of a body of water required to support a floating body. This is a measur of the relative Levity of the 2 volumes.
The volumes are no longer identical. The interactive motives between the 2 volumes are . Thus we learn that of motive, the active surface area between 2 objects is vital. This is encapsulated into the notion of Pressure, where the active motive is assumed to be the same for each object but now spread out by division over a greater surface . There is a volume to surface area logos Analogos in play. At a certain quantity of surface area the material that was of a greater density of gravity becomes of a greater density of levity!
The measure of pressure gives us a measure of when this change happens. Thus a kilogramme volume, that is a volume of 1 litre defined to have a density of gravity of 1 kilogramme is defined to have a motive that causes acceleration of 10 metres per second every second and so a force measure of 10 newtons( roughly)
This force measure which is simply a clever set of definitions of logoi Analogoi, is now considered to act through a surface area and this is defined as a force measure per unit surface orthogonal to the direction of the action. It is then defined as pressure.
This pressure is now a variable measure by which we can assesses when density of gravity relative to another fluid object in which the first is immersed becomes density of levity.
Because we discarded the notion of levity, we do not typically notice this change in inter object behaviours. Thus an object, whatever size is assumed too have density of gravity relative to another object. We are therefore surprised to see that certain objects do not interact in yhis way! In fact their behaviours force us to extend the immersive fluid model into regions of space where apparently there is no fluid!
The use of levity is so intuitive it is a wonder why it was ever dropped. For example, it is not obvious why one floats in outer space. But considering levity, it becomes immediately and intuitively obvious.
Where Newton makes his fundamental contribution is in explaining how an object acquires levity. In the one case the object must transform its volume to surface area ratio, so as to displace a necessary volume of immersive liquid, in the other case the immersive liquid must be violently displaced in an instantaneous fashion to provide the same levity.
This second method brings with it other unrelated consequences to levity and a tremendous expenditure of chemical energy.
Using the natural levity gravity interchange takes a body to the edge of the atmosphere. To go beyond that we need a material like helium that acts with the greatest levity in the plasma system above the lower atmosphere. These materials we typically call plasmas. These plasmas are generated in violent chemical reactions, but also in nuclear fission reactions. The third type of reaction is the ion generation reactions.
However I get ahead of the Newtonian contribution.
Because of the restriction on Alchemical research, the data on the magnetic substances and the electrostatic substances was very meagre. But it was known about in Antiquity, just not given intense scientific study.
Newton and Boyle corresponded on these magnetic and electrostatic behaviours, remarking on their conform ability to sheet lightning and there effect on one another. However it was not untill Faraday that a European wide research effort was mounted into these phenomena in a scientific nd non esoteric , non occultist way!
The occultist and the religious alike considered these phenomenon with the great respect inculcated in them with regard to the powers of Gods., but in fact it was the everyday metalworkers, smithies and precious stone workers who contributed most to our fundamental knowledge of electrostatics and magnetism.
In fact Gilbert, given royal assent to study these things easily draws conclusions appropriate to the times. While he could not see a direct connection between electra and Magnes he nevertheless posited that there was one. And even prior to Oersted, the electromagnetic nature of light was observed in the behaviour of magnetised needles used as compasses in sunlight.
The Philosophical societies hold, like the patent office, many records of observations and theories which were overlooked at the time, but which now indicate clear knowledge of the link between electrostatics and magnetostatics.
The " official" history of electromagnetism records only those experiments and observations that achieved general acceptance Ming the members over a period of time, and for which a necessary and sufficient theoretical basis had been established. Sometimes this was by common assent, at other times this was due to certain individuals manipulating the society for their own gain! Rarely, a true genius arose who charismatically brings all things together with such sense and erudition that the scientific cannon is rewritten.
It is emphatically not the case that an experiment that clearly demonstrates a principle will lead to the revision of settled scientific theory! It just does not happen that way.
Newton for example, was a well respected Astronomer and Alchemist, eventually. But it still took several decades before his work on gravity and the principles of Astrology were agreed as foundational to the future course of science and physics, both in terms of praxis of methodology and example of accurate principles which might be deemed as Laws of God and Natura!
The work of Faraday in particular, an ordinary lab technician rising through the ranks, and those of others throughout Europe provided James Clerk Maxwell with data required to advance his fluid dynamic explanation of electricity and magnetism.
Kelvin was in fact prior to him with a theory of magnetism, based on te new research Data, and in fact just one of several note able digests of the field since Gilbert in 1600 's. around Europe Weber,Gauss,Ampere,Oersted, in Ametica Franklin, Savart, all we're making significant contributions. It was Coulomb that directly took Newton's principles and applied it to charge or charged matter.
Poynting , Tesla Heaviside all made massively important contributions, but it was Maxwell who's careful meditation on the dynamics of electrostatics and magneto statics that united the subject of Electromagnetism under his theoretical basis.
It is because he took his time, as did Faraday, that he has eventually won through the competing theories. In taking his time, he was able to rewrite his subject in the latest athematical terminology.
So first he wrote it in terms of differential equations. Then he rewrote it in terms of Quaternions, and eventually he rewrote it in terms of the new vector methods being promoted by Gibbs . In the long course of these rewrites, much happened in the field of Academia which is shameful to relate. Suffice it to say that " All is fair in love, politics and War!" lord Kelvin has a few things to answer for.
The rewrites of Maxwell's theory were perhaps prompted by how difficult his colleagues found his work! In fact only about 4 people in the whole of the western world could claim to follow and understand it. Of these Heaviside was one.
He however felt most of it was arcane nonsense, and more clearly expressed mathematically by a few principles by other European researchers. He it was who refacted Maxwells 27 equations into the 4 we know and use today.
Heaviside was a telegraph engineer. As such he wanted simple robust rules to guide his decisions and ruminations about transmission of signals along wires. He found that he only needed a good understanding of 4 laws to correctly predict the behaviour of signals within a circuit. All the rest of Maxwell's elaborate mathematical rules were not important.
Of course Maxwell's agenda was not electromagnetic transmissions, and so in fact his theoretical meditations are very relevant to the wider phenomena, but for the special field of electromagnetism only 4 of the laws are relevant.
This simplification by Heaviside led him to speculate about the nature of electricity and magnetism in transmission. Today Ivor Catt is continuing the speculation in that direction.
However, the foundation of Newtonian motive has been left out of the philosophising, and so consequently has gravity and levity. Especially concerning Coulombs force law for charge.
The analogos logos between mass and charge has persisted beyond the clear data that such a division is counter productive, and difficult to sustain. Both chemical and electromagnetic and electronic phenomena require a revision of the measure of mass, which is usually accomplished through the use of an energy term.
In fact Einsteins rest mass was not the first time such a relation was made, but it is the most famous one, especially since American propagandists wanted to promote a so called" Jewish" science over a so called " Aryan" science. Much of our scientific education is propaganda of this sort. The philosophical enquiry of Gods Natural order has passed from the hands of the religious clerics to the hands of the Rationalist Propagandists, and we are all too young to know the difference!
The energy of rest mass is in fact identical in concept to the Newtonian motive. It directly combines gravity in the form of relative density of gravity with levity, in the form of the Areal velocity of a mass required to achieve the greatest known levity.
In a sense this is the surface area a mass would have to have to float in a medium of electromagnetic fluid, as originally conceived by Maxwell and Faraday. This electromagnetic fluid has several names: a field being only the recent scientifically accepted one, to which we might note the resurgence of the Aether notions.
Newtonian Motive as a principle has to be fitted and made conformable to experimental data, but it essentially means that a flexible but identifiable philosophical medium of agency is available to unite all observable data.