On a theory of Electromagnetism: theory C experimentally adduced!

Catt never stood still. Through collaborations he was able to direct experiments that added more to the new theory. In 2011 he revealed the development of Cross Talk.. The implication was Faradays law was mistakenly understood in classical theory.

Crosstalk had a far wider implication. The wave called a plane wave, or even a degenerate solution, which Catt called the TEM wave explained crosstalk by induction in 2 modes!. This plane wave Catt had idealised as a wafer of energy. All the wafers summed by an integral calculus would give the energy current guided by 2 wires.

He had a picture of the electric equipotential lines derived by Maxwell and imagined by Faraday as Tubes of electric elastic tension. Maxwell preferred a hydroelastic tension/ strain model. But this model had to be a surface,that is a plane, to meet the requirements of the plane wave solution to Maxwells equations for Equipotential. The Heaviside Version of Maxwell do not sum up all Maxwell and Faradays ideas.

Heaviside was a Maxwell scholar. His reduction to 4 laws must be seen as a comment on Maxwells Electromagnetic theory. Generally, Maxwells theory was too hard for his contemporaries to understand, but Heaviside had one considerable advantage: the development of telegraph signalling. This revealed a flaw in the way scientists were interpreting Maxwell. The flaw was obvious: none of their signalling worked!

Heaviside figured out from Maxwell theory what was essential, and these were the 4 laws we recognise today. Beyond that Maxwells theory contributed little. However, the wealth of experimental data in the theory, the phenomenology was absolutely crucial.

Maxwell developed a solution to differential equations of potential, that gave the Equipotential patterns of lines around charged surfaces found by experiment. They also enabled him to plot the magnetic equipotentials in the same picture.. The space surrounding a charged surface was full of these lines of Equipotential. But of course his pictures were static.

The notion of current was dynamic, thus these Equipotential lines were dynamic, but no one until Heaviside thought of them as a wave! It was only because he was sending morse code pulses down a wire that he came to realise they were a particular form of wave.

Wave mechanics was still in its infancy. Nobody really understood it. Maxwell certainly did not, but he was making progress. Bill Clifford was the first to attempt to truly understand wave mechanics. Young had, by his slit experiments overturned the Newtonian particle theory of light, but no one knew how to measure anything else.

At the same time Dalton, Mendeleyev etc were making a great case for particles called atoms after Democritus and Leucippus. So the atomic structure of matter was separating from the material of light. It was known prior to Maxwell that light was electromagnetic, but no general theory existed to relate electro dynamics and magneto dynamics.

That is not to say there were no theories of magnetism, because there were, and there were theories on electromagnetism, easier to apprehend than Maxwells. The only reason Maxwell was so seminal is because he predicted electromagnetic transmission of disturbance to any point in space.

The myth is that the term he added for displacement current led to his prediction. In point of fact, the term he added was to capture the movement of charge into and out of a capacitor. This movement is an oscillation, in those days called an undulation, and any undulation was immediately associated with waves.

The understanding of waves was so crude that the one function was used as a simple model. When Lodge found standing waves in his alternating current circuits he was excited to publish an explanation of Maxwells theory, up until then generally ignored.mhowever he was beaten to the punch by Hertz and his more impressive Hertzian waves in the "air". In fact Hertz was one of few who were puzzling over Maxwells theory, but what was clear were his Equipotential diagrams.

The Equipotential diagrams simply show that everywhere in the space around a charged body there were these static lines for electric and magnetic charges. In particular, if a current flawed in a copper wire a magnetic pulse was immediately detected. In the rush to assign names to discoveries, few mentioned the electric pulse that accompanied it, except of course Faraday. Maxwell retained this information in his theory where others ignored it in the rush to explain magnetism!

Of course Hetz and others realised that if this was the case, then a alternating current should transmit an alternating pulse. Magnetic compasses showed that to be true, but again the electric pulse was ignored. It was not until Hertz realised that sparks were also transmitted that the electric pulse was also acknowledged. Hertz spent a good deal of time in trial and error to determine the best way to transmit sparks via a coil receiver.mbut once he had that he mapped out the spatial distribution of the spark transmissions and demonstrated that Maxwells Equipotential diagrams were correctly predicting the brhaviour.

It was lodge and Banda who took the research further into the radio frequencies transmitted by the spark. However they still used the crude sine wave model of a wave, but this suited the method of producing alternating current. It took a while to realise that a spark produced far more complex " wave" patterns than a sine wave, and by then Fourier analysis, in the hands of Lord Kelvin and Helmholtz was applied to most wave like phenomenon.

The birth of " radio" waves queered the pitch. Suddenly maxwell Equipotential lines for electric charge nd magnetic charge were replaced by Aether and Ether terminologies. The source of the lines of Equipotential were ignored. Huge antennae were erected to broadcast these waves in the aether.

Maxwells Equipotential lines are lines of induction!

The very evident attribute of induction between bodies was conveniently forgot. And yet it is fundamental to any explanation of electrodynamics and magneto dynamics..

It is the induction field that is defined as charge. It is the inductionnfieldbthat is defined as magnetism. It is the induction field that is mapped by lines of Equipotential.. This induction field had come to be called the potential..

The difference in potential in these induction fields are called Voltage in the case of electric phenomenon, and Henry's or Webers in the case of magnetic phenomenon.. These potentials exhibit a dynamic force vector. It is the variation in this force vector we call a radio signal transmission.

Equally the variation in these force vectors reflects a dynamic variation in the Equipotential maps around a transmitting charged surface.

Thus for Catt to choose this Equipotential map as a wafer of the plane wave is only the beginning. The dynamics of this Equipotential map are fundamental to everything to do with electromagnetic theory.

By making these Equipotential maps primitives, he can explain a charged surface as deriving from them.,but in so doing he must redefine the nature of both magnetic snd electric induction.

The Wakefield experiment is only a start, a proof of concept if you will..

As Catt points out, he must go on to rewrite the fundamental apprehensions of charge, and this means the electron, a particle or corpuscular description of what is happening in Crookes Ray tube.

This ultimately redefines all of particle physics, and thus chemistry, and it places gravity as a potential in this vast sea of potentials now opened up.


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