This article is necessary insight into the milieu into which Wave theory was eventually born
Now, instead of the usual trotted out anecdotes which big up individuals or specific concepts we can get a sense of the Zeitgeist that stimulated these conceptual labours.
This PDF is about the modern model of the Victorian discovery of polarisation of light by materials. Note the active state of the crystal,surface or active optical plane.
Notice how a discovery of something was allowed to overturn nearly a millennia of consistent and fruitful speculation. This does not happen unless powers that be ordain it! For example , phlogistegen persisted as the explanation for combustion for a long tome after oxygen was identified , named and chemically demonstrated as the agent.
The rush to find the electron coincided with one of the most troubled times in European history. New ideas were being produced alongside new technology. New social and political structures were arising. Europe was as a continent entering into a period of deep trouble and religious turmoil. Social and political situations were turning ugly. America offered a real new beginning for many disaffected and persecuted Europeans.
JJ Thompson was an American. Thus he was free to promote an American concept of the platonic Utopia. The discovery of the Crookes ray opened up the eyes of the mixed academic and intellectual heritage in the new Americans. They were not bound by history but by manifest destiny. Therefore they could adopt new truth and new Technology with alacrity.. Before long many practical demonsrations of uses for the new rays supported the American concepts of how the material world was structured. Much Classical and esoteric knowledge was dressed up as new American theoretical paradigms. Material from the mystic schools, the RosaeCrucians, the Masons, the Knights Templars, and various guilds found its way into the American public domain. Consequently America experienced a huge technological and rapid advancement, with the resources and the will or drive to manifest its destiny.
Much was and is wrong with the American theoretical constructs, but what was evident was the connected governmental thinking in promoting science and technology as key pillars in its strategy of growth and prosperity..
Much of that drive however had its conspiratorial roots in the financiers and ruling elites in the remains of Europe who wanted a vast investment return. Venture capital was always available., evn for crazy ideas, because the market was potentially huge, and the gains from foreclosure were also potentially huge.
One technology in particular was crucial, the provision of Electrical power! It had already been trailed on a small scale in Europe, in Prussia and parts of the Italian and French dominions, but America represented an unimaginable opportunity.
Thus when the cathode ray could be modified to produce a light bulb, or a television screen or a radio valve. There was no doubt that someone or some Cartel was going to compete for that prize.
Competing for that prize meant buying the scientists and technologists and engineers to make it happen.
Buying science means that a scientist has to pitch his model as the truth, demonstrate its effective use, and then swearing to keep these details confidential to the company!
The vortex theories were ditched in America for the American Electron! In Europe vortex theory and research continued. The aether was alive and kicking, so it had to be killed off. The Michelson Morely experiment was hijacked to promote that opinion. Meanwhile, world war and worldwide espionage meant that Americn propaganda and disinformation becme a justified method of defending the wide borders. Anybody who did not subscribe to the American doctrine was socially and politically suspect.
With the defeat of Hamiltonian Quaternions in American universities and colleges, the old European vortex theories were abandoned wholesale and almost overnight. The new vector math of Gibbs was to take its place nd thst necessitated point masses. Corpuscular theory as JJ Thompson wrote seemed to be back in favour.
When Einstein emigrated to America he was shocked at how anti aether the American academics had become. They had no intuition. College students were and are taught to believe in and trust mathematical formulations as the word of God.
Consequently Einstein maintained contact with his European colleagues and even promoted cooperation with the Neuann institute. This was to expose American students to the older Aetheric way of thinking. But a real controversy and divide was opening up and eventually Einstein had to find a way to encode aether in such intense mathematical formalim, that no one would suspect what he was describing as spacetime! Unfortunately another war made his ideas more scientifically and socially popular, and Polarized opinion against the Nazi " vortex " theories and for the Americn/ Jewish particle theories. This was another astute propaganda weapon brought in during troubled times.
The success of Einsteins Photoelectic paper of 1905 was what drew attention to Einstin. In America it was seen as validating JJ Thompsons electron, because that was Einsteins model for the photon. Thus Einstein who thought aesthetically was forced to straddle the particle wave divide.mthe defeat of Germany was thus a death sentence for European aether research in the west, but it continued in the eastern parts of Europe.