Aragos Disc To Ed Leedskalnin and Howard Johnson

The discovery by Arago of magnetic behaviour in a non magnetic disc rotating near a magnetic object lead to many consequences . First it lead Lenz to formulate a law of induction which modified Faradays prior law. Then it lead more careful researchers to recognise a charge differential between the centre of the disc and the edge during rotation, which lead to the concept of a generator. It was never compared to the Wimhurst generator in those days but it should be recognised equivalent under the larger principle of tribomsgnetic behaviours. Faraday and others investigated the notion of diamagnetic polarity as a consequence of Lenz observations and Ampères law of currents. It was shown that all materials are susceptible to magnetic induction. However certain materials iron cobalt and Nickel were permeable to an extraordinary extent. It was conceived as environmental magnetic flux soaking into these materials .

Of those that were susceptible some showed what came to be proven as diamagnetic polarity, and like Aragos disc opposed the direction of magnetic induction in ferromagnetic materials : Those that showed parallel tendencies to ferromagnetic induction were called paramagnetic .

On another track researchers into Aragos disc phenomenon realised that reversing the homopolar generator by applying a current between the centre and the edge created a homopolar motor. Decades later Hall realised that applying a current to a semi conductor but diamagnetic material induced by a magnet pole would generate a measurable side voltage,as if the material was twisting in the magnetic field producing piezzo electricity.

During that time magnets became downgraded to current loops and research on the magnetic field structure stopped . It was not until Ed Leedskalnin that magnetic theory was revived and not until Howard Johnson that Eds findings were richly corroborated. But Ed did not describe diamagnetic polarity nor did Johnson. However the electronic characterisation of diamagnetic materials was completed and taught as fact.

I have to recant the particle theory for a rotational dynamic fluid theory . Vortices become the primitive structures but trochoidal vortices , dynamics unfamiliar to all but a few.

Howard Johnson’s magnetic poles as double vortices model. With like vortices attracting and unlike repelling provides a direct link to diamagnetic polarity in materiality and itsbrelation to the magnetic mode called electric charge and electric current.

Further NMR and all magnetic behaviours can be understood by his model including chemical bonding and nuclear fusion and fission . It explains why the so called neutron is unstable and why hot bodies like the sun are intensely magnetic.

Finally gravity is a demonstrable mode of magnetism in which induced magnets cling to one another when in a larger magnetic field .


What is a force?

A force exerts a pressure? Rather a pressure exerts a force! And finally a transfer of energy exerts a force . Tension indicates that inertia exerts a restorative pressure which or a contractive pressure that

absorbs or draws in energy before reacting to the initial action . And finally pressure acts curvilineally not just in straight lines . in general the notion of a force should be derived from an expansion and contraction pressure in an inertial medium, which is why a fluid dynamic description of motion is crucial and something Newton advocated keenly . Einstein’s geometrical version or equivalence of force was an attempt to define an aethritic medium purely by data points and is naturally curvilineal. Unfortunately his students confused the reference force with a universal notion called gravity which still is not known or understood to this day by Academics . The reference force for earth or the solar system does not work for galaxies and galactic clusters which is why dark matter was invented . That dark matter is increasingly being found to be unaccounted for dust and water in the interstellar medium . The contraction and expansion of this and all materiality is governed by magnetic rotational dynamics of a fluid aetheric medium .

From the Pin Hole to the Collimator

From the pin hole to the collimator

How does light propagate?

The first mistake is to teach young children and people that light travels in straight lines . The way like troubles is as a radiating disturbance from the point source. The radiating disturbance is A trochoid surface that expands from the point source. A light source or a reflecting source is made up of many point Sources. So the wave front is made up of an interference pattern of spherical Trochoid surfaces.

When this interference pattern hits a surface it is absorbed and then re-transmitted either as a Reflection or as a scattered pattern of light. Where the interference pattern meets a translucent material it becomes absorbed and re-transmitted through the material in the way which we call Refraction.

However if the lightht continues hrough a small openings and in the same medium The interference pattern becomes Diffracted near the Boundary of the small pin hole, The interference pattern is absorbed and re-transmitted at the Boundary, and the retransmission interferes with the existing interference pattern which is passing through. The Result is that the hole becomes a new point source. This source now transmits a complex interference pattern onto a surface which we can interpret as an inverted image.

If instead of a pinhole a small slit is used then the image becomes blurred because the interference pattern from the top of the slit to the bottom of the slip is made up of multiple overlapping point sources. The rotations will therefore interfere in a wavelike motion which we interpret as a blur.

A translucent lens is not a pinhole, however when it focuses the light to a point then the point acts like a point source and so acts like a virtual pinhole.

By focusing to a pin hole the image appears on the screen or Retina. However past that focal point light will continue to expand. The interference pattern becomes increasingly blurred, and the image is lost in a flood of non collimated light. This does not occur in a pinhole camera. The pinhole is fixed so the pattern emerges from a fixed position in space.

Collimator takes a “pinhole focus “ and prevents the light from expanding. It directs the light in a given direction onto a screen.

It is known that certain energetic sources form interference patterns which are too powerful to be focused by any optical lens. In this case a collimator is used to provide multiple point sources. The reduction in power allows the point sources to create an interference pattern which can be detected clearly on the screen. The multiple sources act like a single point source if the diffraction pattern is set up to interfere correctly.

We need to understand the collimating effect of an impedance surface in the magnetic flux

we also need to understand how a translucent lens through its dispersion effect by refraction enables the collimated interference patterns to align correctly in the magnetic flux.

The second refraction in the lens collimates the interference pattern in a certain direction, And those second refraction points sources act as a diffraction grating

How appoint source can be colimated Buy a lens, and why refraction is associated with diffraction.

Absorption and retransmission associated with diffraction at the LHC

Ed Leedskalnins PMH Capacitor and The Sun

JG the organic chemistry tutor

This is an electrified dielectric object. It is called a capacitor. Another electrified dielectric object that is called an inductor. A capacitor can store energy for much longer than inductor can. An inductor is a dynamic store of energy whereas the capacitor can store energy when it is not connected to a capacitor circuit. However, Ed Leedskalnin showed that if you make an inductor into a U-shaped loop then the inductor can store energy when that loop is magnetically closed with a bar when it is not connected to the circuit. This inductor which stores energy is called a PMH

A capacitor stores its energy in a dielectric. A PMH stores its energy in the magnetic current in the magnetic material. The ferromagnetic material is also a dielectric but it is a very poor one. It is therefore necessary for the ferromagnetic material to take the form of a closed loop. When in the form of a close loop the energy circulates around the ferro magnetic material in what Ed Leedskalnin called a magnetic current.

If we connect capacity to a PMH we should expect an oscillating Or alternating current flow in the circuit until it disappears.

This gives insight into what happens in the battery. The battery stores energy in both these forms within the chemical reactions that occur within the battery. However, as we know,a battery is not needed to charge a capacitor inductor circuit. We could use a generator.

Thus we can see that Energy can be stored within the PMH or within a capacitor which is a dielectric form in which the dielectric is a poor conductors or it can be stored within a PMH or it can be stored in a capacitor inductor circuit itself. The implications for transformer design, and transformers within any electric circuit, great . This means that if a transformer is disconnected from a circuit it will still carry a magnetic correct. Reconnecting such a transformer back into circuit will cause a flow of magnetic charge which could burn out a generator. In addition trying to disconnect a transformer in alternating current circuit will lead to flashback of energy .

The implications for storage of energy in the sun it’s also great. When are PMH is situated within the surface of the sun the magnetic current will flow smoothly. When the PMH breaks the surface of the sun then the magnetic current will form a loop of plasma involving several ferromagnetic / magnetic materials . This loop may discharge violently. We call such discharges coronal mass Ejections.

It also gives a better explanation of the so-called magnetic reconnection. NASA has shown that where so-called magnetic reconnection events occur magnetic bubbles are also present. These magnetic bubbles are what we call PMH . They are closed magnetic loops within the magnetic aether.

And finally, this has great implications for the understanding of plasmoids.

Ken Wheelers Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism Wheeler

Kens terminology can be confusing.

He combines insights from Eric Dollard with insights from some other observant specialists. The result can be gobbledygook . However, a little patience is rewarded by an insight into what Ken is pointing out .

First let’s explain what is a dielectric. The term derived from Latin refers to the fact that materials can hold separated charge. This refers back to the two fluid theory of electric charge on all or in materials.The term dielectric is a generalisation of the idea of a dipole. The words Paul and charge refer to points. Dipole is two separated points each. Believed to have different charges. These charges often characterised as opposite; that is plus and minus. In the more general theory separated points can just be at different “potential “

Dielectric is a region which consists of different charges the charges are believed to be points. Again the charges can be opposite, plus and minus, or different potentials.

Issue here is that in standard electrostatics the charges are assumed to be in static equilibrium. Thus in standard electrostatics the dynamic stage in which the charges rearrange themselves into separated regions is totally ignored.

Are these charges electric or magnetic? So William Gilbert and Ampére believe them to be magnetic. Later theorists, including Maxwell, separated the charges into two sorts. The first sort was magnetic and the second sort was electric. The justification for this was the observed differences in behaviour of so-called charged objects. However it is clear that the process that was being observed was, is called induction on an object or material. The nature of the charge is indeterminate.

You’re able to build a theory therefore, on the idea of an electric charge or on the idea of a magnetic charge. The Ideas are indistinguishable because the observed behaviour is behaviour of induction

Because the dynamics of the situation is ignored in electrostatics, and in Magnetostatics, the notion of induction is also ignored until much later. The velocity of induction for a magneto static or electrostatic situation differs. In the so-called electrostatic situation, according to the material, induction appears to take place at a very rapid rate. In fact rapidity of the rate is described by the term conduction. Maxwell determined that the induction in certain materials is so rapid that they would be called conductors. However we are looking at the same process the process of induction into different materials.

Because the fields were determined to be static, by that I mean the fields of study, the rate at which the in juicer was brought near to the inductor, that is material that will be induced, the rate of induction caused by the movement of the inducer was ignored until much later.

What Ampére noted was that statics was the wrong way to consider magnetic phenomena. Therefore he coined the term electrodynamics. This is not a tall to say that he believed in little points called electrons. In fact he considered many options but his favourite was dynamic circuitous movement which generated magnetism in a north south pole orientation. He believed that in a copper wire, or copper rod there were small regions which were in this dynamic. Beyond that he could not give any account of is notion, Ampére observed when the battery is connected in a circuit a magnetic North Pole alignment is generated within the circuit . So therefore some circular dynamic is causing this dipole or dielectric arrangement.

Later on Faraday noticed when the magnetic field was changing, that an induction was noticed within the circuit. So both a battery or a moving magnetic field induced this behaviour within a circuit. Equivalence of a battery and a changing magnetic field, the dynamic situation, should not be ignored at any scale or any dynamic or changing situation including chemical reactions.

Because of the belief in electrons, or magnetron the movement of the magnetic field was ignored. Movement was therefore placed only n the so-called electrons or magnetrons, this movement represented both induction and also generation of the magnetic field. It is much simpler to represent the changes as different modes of the same thing. Therefore the movement of a magnetic field generates a different mode of magnetic behaviour. The rate of induction by the movement of the magnetic field is equally as fast as the rate induction by the so-called electric charge in a conductor. The rate of induction in the conductor is therefore the same weather is induced by so-called battery or that induced by removing magnetic field. “Field quote is just a shorthand expression for the region around a magnet which influences material which is in its environment.

Is the field steady? Magnetostatics that it would have you believe that it is. However magneto statics like electrostatics ignores the dynamic stage of induction. When iron filings are sprinkled onto a magnet it is obvious to the eye and findings are in motion. When they achieve a state of rest they settled quickly into a state of equilibrium. When the paper is tapped get moved and they then also move into a different state of equilibrium. So therefore it is hard to think of the “field “as being static, it is easier to think of it as being in dynamic equilibrium.

Because the field is in dynamic equilibrium Ken is right poles as static entities do not exist. Instead we have dynamic regions where the dynamism concentrates.

When we discuss attraction and repulsion we are talking about these dynamics within the “field “.

Kens use of the word counterspace is misleading. The idea of counterspace comes from Steinmetz. It is a mathematical term and it refers to the fact that the field that we use to count or measure the strength of rotation within a magnetic field is an exponent or power or a logarithm . The term field or space here is the mathematical one. That is it is a set of numbers.

When objects are “drawn “together it is a moot point. The objects are either drawn by some spring or they are pushed together by some spring externally. This is mechanical explanation of what is observed. However it is more useful in thinking that space is somehow disappearing into some dimension. We can replace a spring by a dynamic pressure of expansion and contraction in a fluid.

Bloch wall, which appears between the north and south polarities when they brought together, indicates where the dynamic is nUllified. When we m this Bloch wall by means of a test dipole we find that there is a region where the torque is balanced on the dipole. So that we can talk about the alignment of the dipole with the alignment of the larger magnetic type as being parallel.

However when we look at magnetodynamic we do not get a static equilibrium of the dipole, instead we get the rotation of the dipole as it mous relative to the inducing magnet. We need to understand that in general magnetic behaviour generates rotation not static equilibrium. That’s what we see as attraction and repulsion as part of this general rotation relative to each other. At one end of the so-called polls rotational be observed t at the other end attraction will be observed as there is and is it a rotating away from each other will push the other end together.

This the analogy of a gyroscope is apt and is useful. It’s utility comes in acknowledging that the “field “ is dynamic, it is a torque or Rotating field , and therefore gyroscopic motions with in dynamic fields or torque fields need to be considered.

It is important to realise that the dynamics of rotation are not usually properly understood. The best handle on the general idea of rotation is Study Trochoidal dynamics.u

The Combinatorics of Justus Grassmann

What is algebra?
It is the combinatorics of arithmetic. In combinatorics we pay attention to the sequence and arrangement of elements. In arithmetic these elements tend to be objects that we call numbers and symbols that we call operations. In fact in the written form arithmetics is totally symbolic. By this I mean that the marks that we call numerals are symbols, and the symbols that we use for operations are symbols, and any other signs marks  or elements or brackets that we use in arithmetic are symbols.
What distinguishes algebra from arithmetic, is that we tend to use general symbols for everything. if we do not have a typeface for a particular operation  or expression of something that we are trying to perform or process that we are trying to depict then we can create a new symbol and give it a precise definition.
Historically algebra was developed by an Islamic scholar called Al Khwarzim. and the symbolic methods or processes that he wrote down our more correctly called algorithms. Algebra was devised from a common term in Arabic Al Jibr which referred probably to the swinging of a balance. The balance would have two sides in which different objects replaced and the object would swing until it achieved a balance. however there was a more vernacular meaning to the word al Jibr  and from there we get the idea that algebra was a “mindfuck” involving twisting and contorting the mind or brain in order to obtain some meaningless (apparently ) solution. Also from this connection we derived the word gibberish.
Underlying algebra therefore is the fundamental nature of combinatorics, in which elements which might be objects or items or ideas are placed together in some kind of sequence or pattern. These sequences of patterns might be visual objects or they may be auditory objects or Tones ,musical notes; they may also be patterns of movement or patterns of flavours and tastes. This combinatorics is not limited to visual objects but can include every aspect of our interaction with our experience( experiential continuum).
How do we combine things? 
The methods and systems and objects and elements that we used to combine help us to define the boundaries of certain subjects. So if we use mostly symbols then we may define our subject as logical or mathematical. If we use mostly the elements of nature and the environment that we may define our subject as chemical and if we use mainly the elements of the zoetopia then we might define our subject as zoology.
The common Underlying idea is our language the language of our mind and the ideas of our mind. The symbolic representation of our language may then take on the position of being symbols in our combinatorics and thus form an algebra. And as you have seen combinatorics might be the algebra of mathematics or of social sciences or of biology or chemistry.
Thus as Justus Grassmann pointed out, we must found all subjects in a more fundamental combinatorics, and then define an Algebra from these combinatorics rules and structures.
If we do so we remove Mathematics to its proper place in philosophy and computational sciences.
You may weep now understand why methods and systems are prominent in the sciences and mathematics and why Pythagorean scholars say first the Arithnoi and then the Geometree or Gematria or Numerology or Quabballah. It is general combinatorics of sequences and patterns of ideas, objects, processes and elements tha give rise to the algebras found scattered among all subjects.